Customs tithes (Taxes)

Helena Trindade de Sá, Universidade Federal do Estado de Rio de Janeiro Since the Middle Ages, it was foreseen in feudal relations that vassals had the obligation to provide material and military aid to the lord, thus constituting the first approximation to taxation in modern times (AIDAR,2020:446). The process is related to a structural change …
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Brazilwood

María Isabel de Siqueira (Universidade Federal do Estado de Rio de Janeiro) Brazilwood, classified by botanists in the genus caesalpinia, was found in abundance in the easternmost part of the American continent (Varnhagen, 1877:1) by the Portuguese as soon as they arrived in 1500. This type of wood was not totally unknown to the Europeans …
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New Christians

Janaina Guimarães da Fonseca e Silva (Universidade de Pernambuco) New Christians, descendants of Jews or Jews converted to Catholicism, played a prominent role in the colonization of the Americas, specifically in what would become Brazil. Despite the suffering generated by the dispersion at the end of the 15th century, due to the expulsion of Jews …
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